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ingilizce Grammar-Book 2

THE USES AND FORMATION OF THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES

The Uses of the English Tenses

Type of Tense Type of Action Expressed
Simple - actions occurring at regular intervals
  - general truths, or situations existing for a period of time
  - non-continuous actions
   
Continuous - continuous, ongoing actions
   
Perfect - non-continuous actions completed before a certain time
   
Perfect Continuous - continuous, ongoing actions completed before a certain time

 

The Formation of the Indicative Mood of the Active Voice

Tense Auxiliary Verb Form
Simple Present do/does * bare infinitive **
Present Continuous am/is/are present participle
Present Perfect have/has past participle
Present Perfect Continuous have/has  been present participle
     
Simple Past did * bare infinitive ***
Past Continuous was/were present participle
Past Perfect had past participle
Past Perfect Continuous had been present participle
     
Simple Future will (shall) **** bare infinitive
Future Continuous will (shall) be present participle
Future Perfect will (shall) have past participle
Future Perfect Continuous will (shall) have been present participle

 

The Formation of the Subjunctive Mood of the Active Voice

Tense Auxiliary Verb Form
Simple Present do * bare infinitive
Present Continuous be present participle
Present Perfect have past participle
Present Perfect Continuous have been present participle
     
Simple Past did * bare infinitive ***
Past Continuous were present participle
Past Perfect had past participle
Past Perfect Continuous had been present participle

 

The Formation of the Indicative Mood of the Passive Voice

Tense Auxiliary Verb Form
Simple Present am/is/are past participle
Present Continuous am/is/are being past participle
Present Perfect have/has been past participle
Present Perfect Continuous have/has been being past participle
     
Simple Past was/were past participle
Past Continuous was/were being past participle
Past Perfect had been past participle
Past Perfect Continuous had been being past participle
     
Simple Future will (shall) **** be past participle
Future Continuous will (shall) be being past participle
Future Perfect will (shall) have been past participle
Future Perfect Continuous will (shall) have been being past participle

 

The Formation of the Subjunctive Mood of the Passive Voice

Tense Auxiliary Verb Form
Simple Present be past participle
Present Continuous be being past participle
Present Perfect have been past participle
Present Perfect Continuous have been being past participle
     
Simple Past were past participle
Past Continuous were being past participle
Past Perfect had been past participle
Past Perfect Continuous had been being past participle

 

* In the Simple Present and Simple Past tenses of the Active Voice, the auxiliaries are used only for emphasis, and for the formation of questions and negative statements. Auxiliaries are never used with the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be.

** When used without the auxiliary, the third person singular of the Simple Present, in the Indicative Mood of the Active Voice, has the ending s.

*** When used without the auxiliary, the Simple Past form of the verb is used. For regular verbs, and for many irregular verbs, the Simple Past has the same form as the past participle.

**** The other modal auxiliaries could, may, might, must, should and would form conjugations in the same way as will and shall

THE ACTIVE VOICE OF THE VERB TO SHOW

Simple Past: showed
Past Participle: shown

INDICATIVE MOOD

Simple Present Simple Past
I show I showed
you show you showed
he shows he showed
she shows she showed
it shows it showed
we show we showed
they show they showed
   
   
Present Continuous Past Continuous
I am showing I was showing
you are showing you were showing
he is showing he was showing
she is showing she was showing
it is showing it was showing
we are showing we were showing
they are showing they were showing
   
   
Present Perfect Past Perfect
I have shown I had shown
you have shown you had shown
he has shown he had shown
she has shown she had shown
it has shown it had shown
we have shown we had shown
they have shown they had shown
   
   
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
I have been showing I had been showing
you have been showing you had been showing
he has been showing he had been showing
she has been showing she had been showing
it has been showing it had been showing
we have been showing we had been showing
they have been showing they had been showing
   
   
Simple Future Simple Conjugation with Would
I will (shall) show I would show
you will show you would show
he will show he would show
she will show she would show
it will show it would show
we will (shall) show we would show
they will show they would show
   
   
Future Continuous Continuous Conjugation with Would
I will (shall) be showing I would be showing
you will be showing you would be showing
he will be showing he would be showing
she will be showing she would be showing
it will be showing it would be showing
we will (shall) be showing we would be showing
they will be showing they would be showing
   
   
Future Perfect Perfect Conjugation with Would
I will (shall) have shown I would have shown
you will have shown you would have shown
he will have shown he would have shown
she will have shown she would have shown
it will have shown it would have shown
we will (shall) have shown we would have shown
they will have shown they would have shown
   
   
Future Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous Conjugation with Would
I will (shall) have been showing I would have been showing
you will have been showing you would have been showing
he will have been showing he would have been showing
she will have been showing she would have been showing
it will have been showing it would have been showing
we will (shall) have been showing we would have been showing
they will have been showing they would have been showing

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Simple Present Simple Past
I show I showed
you show you showed
he show he showed
she show she showed
it show it showed
we show we showed
they show they showed
   
   
Present Continuous Past Continuous
I be showing I were showing
you be showing you were showing
he be showing he were showing
she be showing she were showing
it be showing it were showing
we be showing we were showing
they be showing they were showing
   
   
Present Perfect Past Perfect
I have shown I had shown
you have shown you had shown
he have shown he had shown
she have shown she had shown
it have shown it had shown
we have shown we had shown
they have shown they had shown
   
   
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
I have been showing I had been showing
you have been showing you had been showing
he have been showing he had been showing
she have been showing she had been showing
It have been showing it had been showing
we have been showing we had been showing
they have been showing they had been showing



THE VERB TO BE AND THE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE VERB TO SHOW

INDICATIVE MOOD

Simple Present Simple Present
I am I am shown
you are you are shown
he is he is shown
she is she is shown
it is it is shown
we are we are shown
they are they are shown
   
   
Present Continuous Present Continuous
I am being I am being shown
you are being you are being shown
he is being he is being shown
she is being she is being shown
it is being it is being shown
we are being we are being shown
they are being they are being shown
   
   
Present Perfect Present Perfect
I have been I have been shown
you have been you have been shown
he has been he has been shown
she has been she has been shown
it has been it has been shown
we have been we have been shown
they have been they have been shown
   
   
Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous
have been being I have been being shown
you have been being you have been being shown
he has been being he has been being shown
she has been being she has been being shown
it has been being it has been being shown
we have been being we have been being shown
they have been being they have been being shown
   
   
Simple Past Simple Past
I was I was shown
you were you were shown
he was he was shown
she was she was shown
it was it was shown
we were we were shown
they were they were shown
   
   
Past Continuous Past Continuous
I was being I was being shown
you were being you were being shown
he was being he was being shown
she was being she was being shown
it was being it was being shown
we were being we were being shown
they were being they were being shown
   
   
Past Perfect Past Perfect
I had been I had been shown
you had been you had been shown
he had been he had been shown
she had been she had been shown
it had been it had been shown
we had been we had been shown
they had been they had been shown
   
   
Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
I had been being I had been being shown
you had been being you had been being shown
he had been being he had been being shown
she had been being she had been being shown
it had been being it had been being shown
we had been being we had been being shown
they had been being they had been being shown
   
   
Simple Future Simple Future
I will (shall) be I will (shall) be shown
you will be you will be shown
he will be he will be shown
she will be she will be shown
it will be it will be shown
we will (shall) be we will (shall) be shown
they will be they will be shown
   
   
Future Continuous Future Continuous
I will (shall) be being I will (shall) be being shown
you will be being you will be being shown
he will be being he will be being shown
she will be being she will be being shown
it will be being it will be being shown
we will (shall) be being we will (shall) be being shown
they will be being they will be being shown
   
   
Future Perfect Future Perfect
I will (shall) have been I will (shall) have been shown
you will have been you will have been shown
he will have been he will have been shown
she will have been she will have been shown
it will have been it will have been shown
we will (shall) have been we will (shall) have been shown
they will have been they will have been shown
   
   
Future Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous
I will (shall) have been being I will (shall) have been being shown
you will have been being you will have been being shown
he will have been being he will have been being shown
she will have been being she will have been being shown
It will have been being it will have been being shown
we will (shall) have been being we will (shall) have been being shown
they will have been being they will have been being shown

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Simple Present Simple Present
I be I be shown
you be you be shown
he be he be shown
she be she be shown
it be it be shown
we be we be shown
they be they be shown
   
   
Present Continuous Present Continuous
I be being I be being shown
you be being you be being shown
he be being he be being shown
she be being she be being shown
it be being it be being shown
we be being we be being shown
they be being they be being shown
   
   
Present Perfect Present Perfect
I have been I have been shown
you have been you have been shown
he have been he have been shown
she have been she have been shown
it have been it have been shown
we have been we have been shown
they have been they have been shown
   
   
Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous
I have been being I have been being shown
you have been being you have been being shown
he have been being he have been being shown
she have been being she have been being shown
it have been being it have been being shown
we have been being we have been being shown
they have been being they have been being shown
   
   
Simple Past Simple Past
I were I were shown
you were you were shown
he were he were shown
she were she were shown
it were it were shown
we were we were shown
they were they were shown
   
   
Past Continuous Past Continuous
I were being I were being shown
you were being you were being shown
he were being he were being shown
she were being she were being shown
it were being it were being shown
we were being we were being shown
they were being they were being shown
   
   
Past Perfect Past Perfect
I had been I had been shown
you had been you had been shown
he had been he had been shown
she had been she had been shown
it had been it had been shown
we had been we had been shown
they had been they had been shown
   
   
Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
I had been being I had been being shown
you had been being you had been being shown
he had been being he had been being shown
she had been being she had been being shown
it had been being it had been being shown
we had been being we had been being shown
they had been being they had been being shown



COMMON ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBS

Bare Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle
 be  was/were  been
 bear  bore  born
 beat  beat  beaten
 become  became  become
 begin  began  begun
 bend  bent  bent
 bind  bound  bound
 bite  bit  bitten
 bleed  bled  bled
 blow  blew  blown
 break  broke  broken
 breed  bred  bred
 bring  brought  brought
 build  built  built
 burst  burst  burst
 buy  bought  bought
 cast  cast  cast
 catch  caught  caught
 choose  chose  chosen
 cling  clung  clung
 come  came  come
 cost  cost  cost
 creep  crept  crept
 cut  cut  cut
 deal  dealt  dealt
 dig  dug  dug
 do  did  done
 draw  drew  drawn
 drink  drank  drunk
 drive  drove  driven
 eat  ate  eaten
 fall  fell  fallen
 feed  fed  fed
 feel  felt  felt
 fight  fought  fought
 find  found  found
 flee  fled  fled
 fling  flung  flung
 fly  flew  flown
 forbid  forbade  forbidden
 forecast  forecast  forecast
 forget  forgot  forgotten
 forgive  forgave  forgiven
 forsake  forsook  forsaken
 freeze  froze  frozen
 get  got  got
 give  gave  given
 go  went  gone
 grind  ground  ground
 grow  grew  grown
 hang  hung  hung
 have  had  had
 hear  heard  heard
 hide  hid  hidden
 hit  hit  hit
 hold  held  held
 hurt  hurt  hurt
 keep  kept  kept
 kneel  knelt  knelt
 know  knew  known
 lay  laid  laid
 lead  led  led
 leave  left  left
 lend  lent  lent
 let  let  let
 lie  lay  lain
 lose  lost  lost
 make  made  made
 mean  meant  meant
 meet  met  met
 mistake  mistook  mistaken
 partake  partook  partaken
 pay  paid  paid
 put  put  put
 read  read  read
 rid  rid  rid
 ride  rode  ridden
 ring  rang  rung
 rise  rose  risen
 run  ran  run
 say  said  said
 see  saw  seen
 seek  sought  sought
 sell  sold  sold
 send  sent  sent
 set  set  set
 shake  shook  shaken
 shed  shed  shed
 shine  shone  shone
 shoe  shod  shod
 shoot  shot  shot
 show  showed  shown
 shrink  shrank or shrunk  shrunk
 shut  shut  shut
 sing  sang  sung
 sink  sank  sunk
 sit  sat  sat
 sleep  slept  slept
 slide  slid  slid
 sling  slung  slung
 slink  slunk  slunk
 slit  slit  slit
 speak  spoke  spoken
 speed  sped  sped
 spend  spent  spent
 spin  span or spun  spun
 spit  spit or spat  spat
 split  split  split
 spread  spread  spread
 spring  sprang  sprung
 stand  stood  stood
 steal  stole  stolen
 stick  stuck  stuck
 sting  stung  stung
 stink  stank  stunk
 stride  strode  strode
 strike  struck  struck
 string  strung  strung
 strive  strove  striven
 swear  swore  sworn
 sweep  swept  swept
 swim  swam  swum
 take  took  taken
 teach  taught  taught
 tear  tore  torn
 tell  told  told
 think  thought  thought
 thrive  throve  thriven
 throw  threw  thrown
 thrust  thrust  thrust
 tread  trod  trodden
 understand  understood  understood
 wake  woke  woken
 wear  wore  worn
 weave  wove  woven
 weep  wept  wept
 win  won  won
 wind  wound  wound
 wring  wrung  wrung
 write  wrote  written



CHAPTER 1.  THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF THE VERB TO BE

1. Grammar

The grammar of a language is an analysis of the various functions performed by the words of the language, as they are used by native speakers and writers.

There are many different ways of analyzing a language. In such an analysis, words can be given various names, depending on the function which they perform. For instance, words which perform the function of naming things are commonly referred to as nouns, and words which perform the function of expressing states or actions are commonly referred to as verbs.

It should be kept in mind that many English words can perform more than one function. For instance, in the following sentences, the underlined words can be referred to as nouns because they perform the function of naming things.

e.g. I have lost my comb.

e.g. Water is one of the necessities of life.

However, in the following sentences, the same words can be referred to as verbs because they perform the function of expressing actions.

e.g. I comb my hair every morning.

e.g. Do you water your plants once a week?

In this book, widely used terms such as noun, verb, pronoun and so on, will be used in order to explain the way in which words function in the English language.

 

2. Verb forms

English verbs may have different forms, depending on the subject of the verb, and depending on when the action expressed by the verb takes place.

In the following sentences, the subjects of the verbs indicate who or what is performing the actions expressed by the verbs. The verbs in these examples are underlined.

e.g. We live in the city.

e.g. He lives on Queen Street.

These examples illustrate how the form of a verb may vary, depending on the subject of the verb. In the first example, the subject is we, and the form of the verb is live. In the second example, the subject is he, and the form of the verb is lives.

The different verb forms which indicate when the action expressed by a verb takes place are usually referred to as tenses.

e.g. We always walk to work.

e.g. We walked to work yesterday.

In the first sentence, the verb walk is in the Simple Present tense. In the second sentence, the verb walked is in the Simple Past tense. Present tenses are usually used to express actions which are taking place in the present; whereas past tenses are usually used to express actions which took place in the past.

The infinitive form of a verb can be used without reference to any particular subject or any particular time. In English, the infinitive form of a verb begins with the word to. For instance, to walk is the infinitive of the verb used in the two preceding examples.

 

3. Uses of the simple present tense

The Simple Present is one of four present tenses in English, and is used in various ways. In the examples given below, the verbs in the Simple Present tense are underlined.

For instance, the Simple Present can be used to refer to actions which occur at regular intervals.

e.g. We visit our friends every Sunday.

e.g. They take a holiday once a year.

e.g. Geese fly south every fall.

The Simple Present is also used in stating general truths.

e.g. Gas expands when heated.

e.g. The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the world.

e.g. Canada lies north of the United States.

In addition, the Simple Present is used when referring to printed material, and when describing events portrayed in a book, film, or other work of art.

e.g. The report presents the information clearly.

e.g. At the end of the film , the hero finds the hidden treasure.

Occasionally, the Simple Present is used to express actions occurring in the future or the past.

e.g. Our plane leaves at eight o'clock tomorrow night.

e.g. Burglar Steals Valuable Paintings.

In the first example, the Simple Present is used to refer to something which will happen in the future. In the second example, which is written in the style of a newspaper headline, the Simple Present is used to refer to something which happened in the past.

 

4. The simple present of the verb To Be

A conjugation of a verb is a list showing the different forms a verb may take. When a verb is conjugated, it is usually accompanied by all of the personal pronouns which can act as subjects of a verb. Thus, a conjugation can show the different forms a verb must take when it is used with different subjects.

The English personal pronouns which may be used as subjects of verbs are as follows:

   I  ,   you  ,   he  ,   she  ,   it  ,   we  ,   they

It should be noted that in modern English, the same verb forms are used with the subject you, whether you refers to one or more than one person or thing. In an older form of English, there was another personal pronoun, thou, which was used with different verb forms, and which generally referred to one person or thing.

The Simple Present of the verb to be is conjugated as follows. In spoken English, contractions are often used.

Without contractions With contractions
I am I'm
you are & you're
he is he's
she is she's
it is it's
we are we're
they are they're


In written English, an apostrophe: ' is used in a contraction, to indicate that one or more letters have been omitted.

 

4a. Affirmative statements

An affirmative statement states that something is true. In an affirmative statement, the verb follows the subject.

e.g. I am awake.

e.g. They are ready.

In the first example, the verb am follows the subject I. In the second example, the verb are follows the subject they.

In written English, statements are always followed by a period: . Statements and questions must begin with a capital letter.

In order to review the preceding points, see Exercise 1.

 

4b. Questions

For the Simple Present of the verb to be, questions are formed by reversing the order of the subject and the verb, so that the verb precedes the subject.

e.g. Am I awake?
e.g. Are they ready?

In the first example, the verb am precedes the subject I. In the second example, the verb are precedes the subject they.

In written English, questions are always followed by a question mark: ?

See Exercise 2.

 

4c. Negative statements

In the Simple Present of the verb to be, negative statements are formed by adding the word not after the verb.

e.g. I am not awake.

e.g. They are not ready.

In the first example, not follows the verb am. In the second example, not follows the verb are.

In spoken English, the following contractions are often used:

Without contractions With contractions
  is not   isn't
  are not   aren't


See Exercise 3.

 

4d. Negative questions

In the Simple Present of the verb to be, negative questions are formed by reversing the order of the subject and verb, and adding not after the subject.

e.g. Am I not awake?
e.g. Are they not ready?

In spoken English, contractions are usually used in negative questions. In the contracted form of a negative question, the contraction of not follows immediately after the verb. For example:

Without contractions With contractions
  Are you not awake?   Aren't you awake?
  Is he not awake?   Isn't he awake?
  Are we not awake?   Aren't we awake?
  Are they not awake?   Aren't they awake?


It should be noted that there is no universally accepted contraction for am not. In spoken English, am I not? is often contracted to aren't I?. However, although the expression aren't I? is considered acceptable in informal English, it is not considered to be grammatically correct in formal English. In formal English, no contraction should be used for am I not.

See Exercise 4.

 

4e. Tag questions

A tag question is a question added at the end of a sentence. A tag question following an affirmative statement generally has the form of a negative question, with the meaning: Isn't that true? In some languages, such tag questions are invariable. However, in English, tag questions vary, depending on the verbs and subjects of the preceding statements.

In the following examples, the tag questions are underlined. Contractions are usually used in negative tag questions. For example:

Affirmative statement Affirmative statement with tag question
  Are you not awake?   Aren't you awake?
  I am awake.   I am awake, am I not?
  You are awake.   You are awake, aren't you?
  She is awake.   She is awake, isn't she?
  We are awake.   We are awake, aren't we?
  They are awake.   They are awake, aren't they?


These examples illustrate how the subjects and verbs of the preceding statements are repeated in tag questions. For instance, in the first example, the subject I and the verb am are repeated in the tag question. In the second example, the subject you and the verb are are repeated in the tag question.

In spoken English, the expression aren't I? is often used as a tag question. However, this is not considered to be grammatically correct in formal, written English.

See Exercises 5 and 6.


 

EXERCISES for CHAPTER 1. THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF THE VERB TO BE

1. Change the following pairs of words into sentences, using the correct forms of the Simple Present of the verb to be. For example:
      I, cautious
      I am cautious.

      they, friendly
      They are friendly.

1. you, careful
2. it, warm
3. he, here
4. we, bold
5. they, careless
6. she, clever
7. we, ready
8. you, reckless
9. I, shy
10. they, polite
Answers


2. Change the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1 into questions. For example:
      I am cautious.
      Am I cautious?

      They are friendly.
      Are they friendly?
Answers


3. Change the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1 into negative statements. For example:
      I am cautious.
      I am not cautious.

      They are friendly.
      They are not friendly.
Answers


4. Change the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1 into negative questions. Except where the subject of the verb is I, write both the form without contractions and the form with contractions. For example:
      I am cautious.
      Am I not cautious?

      They are friendly.
      Are they not friendly?
      Aren't they friendly?
Answers


5. Add negative tag questions to the ends of the affirmative statements resulting from Exercise 1. Except where the subject of the verb is I, use contractions for the tag questions. For example:
      I am cautious.
      I am cautious, am I not?

      They are friendly.
      They are friendly, aren't they?
Answers


6. Using the Simple Present of the verb to be, and making sure that the word order is correct, form the following groups of words into grammatically correct statements or questions. If the symbol ? is present, form the words into a question. If the word not is present, form the words into a negative statement or negative question. Do not use contractions in this exercise. For example:
      it, brown
      It is brown.

      you, ?, excited
      Are you excited?

      I, satisfied, not
      I am not satisfied.

      not, ?, they, ready
      Are they not ready?

1. you, ?, hungry
2. we, ?, not, correct
3. he, ?, happy
4. not, ?, it, cold
5. she, here
6. I, early, ?
7. they, wrong, not
8. you, ?, comfortable
9. they, ?, not, strong
10. not, ?, I, fortunate
11. it, slippery, ?
12. not, you, late
13. it, not, ?, important
14. we, famous
15. they, present, ?
Answers

 

ANSWERS for CHAPTER 1. THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF THE VERB TO BE

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. You are careful. 2. It is warm. 3. He is here. 4. We are bold. 5. They are careless. 6. She is clever. 7. We are ready. 8. You are reckless. 9. I am shy. 10. They are polite.

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. Are you careful? 2. Is it warm? 3. Is he here? 4. Are we bold? 5. Are they careless? 6. Is she clever? 7. Are we ready? 8. Are you reckless? 9. Am I shy? 10. Are they polite?

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. You are not careful. 2. It is not warm. 3. He is not here. 4. We are not bold. 5. They are not careless. 6. She is not clever. 7. We are not ready. 8. You are not reckless. 9. I am not shy. 10. They are not polite.

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. Are you not careful? Aren't you careful? 2. Is it not warm? Isn't it warm? 3. Is he not here? Isn't he here? 4. Are we not bold? Aren't we bold? 5. Are they not careless? Aren't they careless? 6. Is she not clever? Isn't she clever? 7. Are we not ready? Aren't we ready? 8. Are you not reckless? Aren't you reckless? 9. Am I not shy? 10. Are they not polite? Aren't they polite?

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. You are careful, aren't you? 2. It is warm, isn't it? 3. He is here, isn't he? 4. We are bold, aren't we? 5. They are careless, aren't they? 6. She is clever, isn't she? 7. We are ready, aren't we? 8. You are reckless, aren't you? 9. I am shy, am I not? 10. They are polite, aren't they?

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. Are you hungry? 2. Are we not correct? 3. Is he happy? 4. Is it not cold? 5. She is here. 6. Am I early? 7. They are not wrong. 8. Are you comfortable? 9. Are they not strong? 10. Am I not fortunate? ii. Is it slippery? 12. You are not late. 13. Is it not important? 14. We are famous. 15. Are they present?

 

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CHAPTER 2.  THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF VERBS OTHER THAN THE VERB TO BE

1. Formation of the simple present

The Simple Present of any verb other than the verb to be is formed from the bare infinitive of the verb. As shown in the following examples, the bare infinitive of a verb consists of the infinitive without the word to. The bare infinitive is the form in which English verbs are usually listed in dictionaries. For example:

Infinitive Bare Infinitive
  to be   be
  to walk   walk
  to work   work

In the Simple Present of verbs other than the verb to be, the form of the verb used with the subjects I , you, we and they is the same as the bare infinitive. The form of the verb used with the subjects he, she and it has the ending s added to the bare infinitive.

For example, the Simple Present of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:

I work
you work
he works
she works
it works
we work
they work

The form of the verb used with the subjects he, she and it is generally referred to as the third person singular.

See Exercise 1.

 

1a. The simple present of the verb To Have

The Simple Present of the verb to have is slightly irregular, since the bare infinitive is have, whereas the form of the verb used in the third person singular is has. The Simple Present of the verb to have is conjugated as follows:

I have
you have
he has
she has
it has
we have
they have

See Exercise 2.

 

2. Spelling rules for adding s in the third person singular

Some verbs change their spelling when s is added in the third person singular.

 

2a. Verbs ending in y

The English letters a, e, i, o and u are generally referred to as vowels. The other English letters are generally referred to as consonants.

When a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to ie before the ending s is added. In each of the following examples, the consonant immediately preceding the final y is underlined.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  study   studies
  fly   flies
  carry   carries

However, when a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending s is added. In each of the following examples, the vowel immediately preceding the final y is underlined.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  say   says
  enjoy   enjoys
  buy   buys

See Exercise 3.

 

2b. Verbs ending in o

When a verb ends in o, the letter e is added before the s ending. For example:

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  do   does
  echo   echoes
  go   goes

 

2c. Verbs ending in ch, s, sh, x or z

When a verb ends in a sibilant sound such as ch, s, sh, x or z, the letter e is added before the s ending. For example:

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  pass   passes
  push   pushes
  watch   watches
  fix   fixes
  buzz   buzzes

See Exercise 4.

 

3. Pronunciation of the es ending

A syllable is a unit of pronunciation, usually consisting of a vowel sound which may or may not be accompanied by consonants.

When a verb ends in a sibilant sound such as ch, s, sh, x or z, the es ending of the third person singular is pronounced as a separate syllable. The reason for this is that these sounds are so similar to the sound of the es ending, that the ending must be pronounced as a separate syllable in order to be heard clearly.

In each of the following examples the bare infinitive consists of one syllable, whereas the form of the verb used in the third person singular consists of two syllables.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  pass   passes
  push   pushes
  catch   catches
  mix   mixes

Similarly, when s is added to verbs ending in ce, ge, se or ze, the final es is usually pronounced as a separate syllable. In each of the following examples the bare infinitive consists of one syllable, whereas the form of the verb used in the third person singular consists
of two syllables.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  race   races
  rage   rages
  praise   praises
  doze   dozes

However, when s is added to a verb ending in e preceded by a letter other than c, g, s or z, the final es is not pronounced as a separate syllable. In each of the following examples, both the bare infinitive and the form of the verb used in the third person singular consist of one syllable.

Bare Infinitive Third Person Singular
  make   makes
  smile   smiles
  dine   dines
  save   saves

See Exercise 5.

 

4. The auxiliary Do

With the exception of the verb to be, verbs in modern English use the auxiliary do to form questions and negative statements in the Simple Present.

The Simple Present of the verb to do is conjugated as follows:

I do
you do
he does
she does
it does
we do
they do

Auxiliaries are verbs which are combined with other verbs to form various tenses. It should be noted that when an auxiliary is combined with another verb, it is the auxiliary which must agree with the subject, while the form of the other verb remains invariable.

When the auxiliary do is combined with another verb, the other verb always has the form of the bare infinitive.

 

4a. Questions

In order to form a question in the Simple Present of any verb other than the verb to be, the Simple Present of the auxiliary do is added before the subject, and the bare infinitive of the verb is placed after the subject. For example:

Affirmative Statement Question
  I work.   Do I work?
  You work.   Do you work?
  He works.   Does he work?
  She works.   Does she work?
  It works.   Does it work?
  We work.   Do we work?
  They work.   Do they work?

See Exercise 6.

 

4b. Negative statements

In order to form a negative statement, the Simple Present of the auxiliary do followed by the word not is placed before the bare infinitive of the verb. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
  I work.   I do not work.
  You work.   You do not work.
  He works.   He does not work.
  She works.   She does not work.
  It works.   It does not work.
  We work.   We do not work.
  They work.   They do not work.

See Exercise 7.

In spoken English, the following contractions are often used:

Without contractions With contractions
  do not   don't
  does not   doesn't

 

4c. Negative questions

To form a negative question, the Simple Present of the auxiliary do is placed before the subject, and the word not followed by the bare infinitive is placed after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the Simple Present of the auxiliary do. For example:

Without contractions With contractions
  Do I not work?   Don't I work?
  Do you not work?   Don't you work?
  Does he not work?   Doesn't he work?
  Does she not work?   Doesn't she work?
  Does it not work?   Doesn't it work?
  Do we not work?   Don't we work?
  Do they not work?   Don't they work?

See Exercise 8.

 

4d. Tag questions

The auxiliary do or does is used for a tag question which follows a statement containing the Simple Present of a verb other than the verb to be. In the following examples, the negative tag questions are underlined. Contractions are usually used in negative tag questions.

Affirmative Statement Affirmative Statement with Tag Question
  I work.   I work, don't I?
  You work.   You work, don't you?
  He works.   He works, doesn't he?
  She works.   She works, doesn't she?
  It works.   It works, doesn't it?
  We work.   We work, don't we?
  They work.   They work, don't they?

See Exercise 9.

 

4e. The verb To Have

It should be noted that, particularly in British English, in the case of the Simple Present and Simple Past of the verb to have, questions and negative statements are sometimes formed in the same way as for the verb to be, without the use of the auxiliary do.

e.g. He has a sister, hasn't he?

 

 

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EXERCISES for CHAPTER 2.  THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF VERBS OTHER THAN THE VERB TO BE

1. Using the Simple Present tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      I ______ to the radio. (to listen)
      I listen to the radio.

      He _______ to the radio. (to listen)
      He listens to the radio.

1. She __________ the guitar. (to play)
2. We __________ soccer. (to play)
3. They _________ to talk. (to like)
4. He __________ ice cream. (to like)
5. You _________ your friends often. (to call)
6. He _________ the office every day. (to call)
7. She __________ regularly. (to practise)
8. They __________ once a week. (to practise)
9. We __________ here. (to shop)
10. It __________ delicious. (to taste)
Answers


2. Using the Simple Present tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verb to have. For example:
      I ____ a pen.
      I have a pen.

      He ___ two pencils.
      He has two pencils.

1. I _______ many books.
2. You _______ an apartment.
3. He _______ a bicycle.
4. We _______ fun.
5. They _______ two sleds.
6. She _______ milk in her tea.
7. I _______ a warm sweater.
8. We _______ breakfast at eight o'clock.
9. He _______ an alarm clock.
10. They ________ a sense of humor.
Answers


3. Paying attention to which verbs change their spelling before adding s in the third person singular, fill in the blanks with the Simple Present of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      He always _______ promptly. (to reply)
      He always replies promptly.

      She _____ little. (to say)
      She says little.

      They _____ bridge once a week. (to play)
      They play bridge once a week.

1. He __________ it. (to deny)
2. They __________ to be on time. (to try)
3. It _________ to be careful. (to pay)
4. She __________ hard. (to study)
5. You __________ good manners. (to display)
6. He always __________ himself. (to enjoy)
7. She __________ to Ireland once a year. (to fly)
8. We __________ five people. (to employ)
9. He __________ his friends. (to accompany)
10. She __________ chocolate chip cookies every week. (to buy)
Answers


4. Paying attention to which verbs take s and which take es in the third person singular, fill in the blanks with the Simple Present of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
      He ____ everywhere on foot. (to go)
      He goes everywhere on foot.

      It _____ surprising. (to seem)
      It seems surprising.

      They _____ skiing. (to teach)
      They teach skiing.

1. She __________ a great deal of work. (to do)
2. He __________ television every evening. (to watch)
3. She __________ a horse. (to own)
4. We __________ the dishes every night. (to do)
5. She __________ she had a pair of skates. (to wish)
6. He _________ us to call him. (to want)
7. She __________ she made a mistake. (to confess)
8. He usually __________ the truth. (to tell)
9. They __________ apples to make cider. (to press)
10. It __________ out easily. (to wash)
Answers


5. For each of the following verbs, underline the letter or letters representing the sound preceding the es ending, and then indicate the number of syllables in the verb. For example:
      wishes __
      wishes 2

      laces __
      laces 2

      takes __
      takes 1

1. watches __
2. teases __
3. likes __
4. rushes __
5. faces __
6. dines __
7. misses __
8. tames __
9. scares __
10. passes __
11. pinches __
12. wades __
Answers


6. Change the following affirmative statements into questions. For example:
      She walks to work.
      Does she walk to work?

      They take the bus.
      Do they take the bus?

1. I hurry home.
2. He drives a truck.
3. You follow the news.
4. They want a pet.
5. She likes flowers.
6. We need tea.
7. She answers the questions.
8. He drinks coffee.
9. I learn quickly.
10. It rains heavily.
Answers


7. Change the affirmative statements given in Exercise 6 into negative statements. For example:
      She walks to work.
      She does not walk to work.

      They take the bus.
      They do not take the bus.
Answers


8. Change the affirmative statements given in Exercise 6 into negative questions. Give both the forms without contractions, and the forms with contractions. For example:
      She walks to work.
      Does she not walk to work?
      Doesn't she walk to work?

      They take the bus.
      Do they not take the bus?
      Don't they take the bus?
Answers


9. Add negative tag questions to the affirmative statements given in Exercise 6. Use contractions for the tag questions. For example:
      She walks to work.
      She walks to work, doesn't she?

      They take the bus.
      They take the bus, don't they?
Answers
 

ANSWERS for CHAPTER 2. THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF VERBS OTHER THAN THE VERB TO BE

Answers to Exercise 1:
1. plays 2. play 3. like 4. likes 5. call 6. calls 7. practises 8. practise 9. shop 10. tastes

Answers to Exercise 2:
1. have 2. have 3. has 4. have 5. have 6. has 7. have 8. have 9. has 10. have

Answers to Exercise 3:
1. denies 2. try 3. pays 4. studies 5. display 6. enjoys 7. flies 8. employ 9. accompanies 10. buys

Answers to Exercise 4:
1. does 2. watches 3. owns 4. do 5. wishes 6. wants 7. confesses 8. tells 9. press 10. washes

Answers to Exercise 5:
1. watches 2 2. teases 2 3. likes 1 4. rushes 2 5. faces 2 6. dines 1 7. misses 2 8. tames 1 9. scares 1 10. passes 2 11. pinches 2 12. wades 1

Answers to Exercise 6:
1. Do I hurry home? 2. Does he drive a truck? 3. Do you follow the news? 4. Do they want a pet? 5. Does she like flowers? 6. Do we need tea? 7. Does she answer the questions? 8. Does he drink coffee? 9. Do I learn quickly? 10. Does it rain heavily?

Answers to Exercise 7:
1. I do not hurry home. 2. He does not drive a truck. 3. You do not follow the news. 4. They do not want a pet. 5. She does not like flowers. 6. We do not need tea. 7. She does not answer the questions. 8. He does not drink coffee. 9. I do not learn quickly. 10. It does not rain heavily.

Answers to Exercise 8:
1. Do I not hurry home? Don't I hurry home? 2. Does he not drive a truck? Doesn't he drive a truck? 3. Do you not follow the news? Don't you follows the news? 4. Do they not want a pet? Don't they want a pet? 5. Does she not like flowers? Doesn't she like flowers? 6. Do we not need tea? Don't we need tea? 7. Does she not answer the questions? Doesn't she answer the questions? 8. Does he not drink coffee? Doesn't he drink coffee? 9. Do I not learn quickly? Don't I learn quickly? 10. Does it not rain heavily? Doesn't it rain heavily?

Answers to Exercise 9:
1. I hurry home, don't I? 2. He drives a truck, doesn't he?
3. You follow the news, don't you? 4. They want a pet, don't they? 5. She likes flowers, doesn't she? 6. We need tea, don't we? 7. She answers the questions, doesn't she? 8. He drinks coffee, doesn't he? 9. I learn quickly, don't I? 10. It rains heavily, doesn't it




CHAPTER 3.  THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

1. Uses of the present continuous

In English, the Present Continuous tense is usually used to express continuing, ongoing actions which are taking place at the moment of speaking or writing. In the examples given below, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.
e.g. Right now I am cooking supper.
      At the moment the plane is flying over the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

The Present Continuous tense is often used in conversation.
e.g. "What are you doing?"
      "I am working on my English assignment."

Occasionally, the Present Continuous tense is used to refer to a future event.
e.g. We are leaving tomorrow.

 

2. Formation of the present continuous

The Present Continuous tense of any verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to be, followed by what is generally referred to as the present participle of the verb.

The present participle of a verb is formed by adding ing to the bare infinitive. For instance, the present participle of the verb to work is working.

Thus, the Present Continuous tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:

 I am working
 you are working
 he is working
 she is working
 it is working
 we are working
 they are working

See Exercise 1.

 

3. Spelling rules for the formation of the present participle

Some verbs change their spelling when the ending ing is added to form the present participle.

a. Verbs ending in a silent e
When a verb ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to close   closing
  to dine   dining
  to leave   leaving
  to move   moving

However, when a verb ends in an e which is not silent, the final e is not dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to be   being
  to see   seeing

b. Verbs ending in ie
When a verb ends in ie, the ie is changed to y before the ending ing is added. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to die   dying
  to lie   lying

When a verb ends in y, no change is made before the ending is added. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to fly   flying
  to play   playing

See Exercise 2.

c. One-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
Except in the case of the final consonants w, x and y, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added. The reason for this is to reflect the fact that the pronunciation of the single vowel does not change when the ending ing is added.

English vowels have a variety of pronunciations. For instance, each English vowel has two contrasting pronunciations, which are sometimes referred to as short and long. Vowels which are followed by two consonants, and vowels which are followed by a single consonant at the end of a word, are generally pronounced short. In contrast, vowels which are followed by a single consonant followed by another vowel are generally pronounced long.

In the table below, the underlined vowels in the left-hand column are pronounced short; whereas the underlined vowels in the right-hand column are pronounced long. For example:

Short Vowels Long Vowels
  fat   fate
  tapping   taping
  let   delete
  win   wine
  filling   filing
  not   note
  hopping   hoping
  flutter   flute

Thus, in the case of most one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the vowel is pronounced short. In order to reflect the fact that the vowel is also pronounced short in the corresponding present participle, except in the case of w, x and y, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added.

In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are
underlined. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to nod   nodding
  to dig   digging
  to run   running
  to clap   clapping
  to set   setting

When a verb ends in w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to draw   drawing
  to fix   fixing
  to say   saying

It should also be noted that when a verb ends in a single consonant preceded by two vowels, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. The reason for this is that two vowels together are generally pronounced long. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to rain   raining
  to read   reading
  to meet   meeting
  to soak   soaking

See Exercise 3.

d. Verbs of more than one syllable which end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled to form the present participle only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress.

For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to expel   expelling
  to begin   beginning
  to occur   occurring
  to omit   omitting

When a verb of more than one syllable ends in w, x or y, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to allow   allowing
  to affix   affixing
  to convey   conveying

When the last syllable of a verb is not pronounced with the heaviest stress, the final consonant is usually not doubled to form the present participle. For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs do not have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are not doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle
  to listen   listening
  to order   ordering
  to focus   focusing
  to limit   limiting

If necessary, a dictionary can be consulted to determine which syllable of a verb has the heaviest stress. Many dictionaries use symbols such as apostrophes to indicate which syllables are pronounced with the heaviest stress.

See Exercise 4.

It should be noted that British and American spelling rules differ for verbs which end in a single l preceded by a single vowel. In British spelling, the l is always doubled before the endings ing and ed
are added. However, in American spelling, verbs ending with a single l follow the same rule as other verbs; the l is doubled only when the last syllable has the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

Infinitive Present Participle  
  American Spelling British Spelling
 to signal   signaling   signalling
 to travel   traveling   travelling
     
 to compel   compelling   compelling
 to propel   propelling   propelling

From these examples it can be seen that the American and British spellings for verbs ending in a single l differ only when the last syllable does not have the heaviest stress.

 

4. Questions and negative statements

a. Questions
In the Present Continuous, the verb to be acts as an auxiliary. As is the case with other English tenses, it is the auxiliary which is used to form questions and negative statements.

To form a question in the Present Continuous tense, the auxiliary is placed before the subject. For example:

Affirmative Statement Question
  I am working.   Am I working?
  You are working.   Are you working?
  He is working.   Is he working?
  She is working.   Is she working?
  It is working.   Is it working?
  We are working.   Are we working?
  They are working.   Are they working?

See Exercise 5.

b. Negative statements
To form a negative statement, the word not is added after the auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
  I am working.   I am not working.
  You are working.   You are not working.
  He is working.   He is not working.
  She is working.   She is not working.
  It is working.   It is not working.
  We are working.   We are not working.
  They are working.   They are not working.

See Exercise 6.

c. Negative questions
To form a negative question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject, and the word not is placed after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the auxiliary. Although there is no universally accepted contraction for am not, the expression aren't I? is often used in spoken English. For example:

Without Contractions With Contractions
  Am I not working?   [Aren't I working?] - used in speaking
  Are you not working?   Aren't you working?
  Is he not working?   Isn't he working?
  Is she not working?   Isn't she working?
  Is it not working?   Isn't it working?
  Are we not working?   Aren't we working?
  Are they not working?   Aren't they working?

See Exercise 7.

d. Tag questions
Tag questions are also formed using the auxiliary. In the following examples, the tag questions are underlined. In spoken English, aren't I? is often used as a tag question. For example:

Affirmative Statement Affirmative Statement with Tag Question
  I am working.   I am working, am I not?
  You are working.   You are working, aren't you?
  He is working.   He is working, isn't he?
  She is working.   She is working, isn't she?
  It is working.   It is working, isn't it?
  We are working.   We are working, aren't we?
  They are working.   They are working, aren't they?

See Exercise 8.

 

5. Comparison of the uses of the simple present and present continuous

As pointed out in Chapter 1, the Simple Present tense may be used for stating general truths, and for referring to actions which occur at regular intervals. In the following examples, the verbs in the Simple Present tense are underlined.
e.g. Nova Scotia is a Canadian province. Geese fly south every winter.

In contrast, the Present Continuous tense is usually used to refer to ongoing actions happening at the time of speaking or writing. In the following examples, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.
e.g. Right now, I am visiting the province of Nova Scotia. At the moment, a flock of geese is flying overhead.
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